Intelligence and Intellect in Voc. Ed. and Training

Wise men speak because they have something to say; fools because they have to say something. ― Plato

If you want to be an intellectual, work hard and be uncompromisingly scrupulous and honest. Since most people are sufficiently intelligent, those among them who have access to good education are capable of being true intellectuals, but few choose it. If you have access to good learning, then you definitely can be this rare kind if intellectual – the only real kind.

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Intelligence

By Kendra Cherry, Psychology Expert, http://abt.cm/1gGkPIc

While intelligence is one of the most talked about subjects within psychology, there is no standard definition of what exactly constitutes ‘intelligence.’ Some researchers have suggested that intelligence is a single, general ability, while other believe that intelligence encompasses a range of aptitudes, skills and talents.

The following are some of the major theories of intelligence that have emerged during the last 100 years.

Charles Spearman – General Intelligence:

British psychologist Charles Spearman (1863-1945) described a concept he referred to as general intelligence, or the g factor. After using a technique known as factor analysis to to examine a number of mental aptitude tests, Spearman concluded that scores on these tests were remarkably similar. People who performed well on one cognitive test tended to perform well on other tests, while those who scored badly on one test tended to score badly on others. He concluded that intelligence is general cognitive ability that could be measured and numerically expressed.

Louis L. Thurstone – Primary Mental Abilities:

Psychologist Louis L. Thurstone (1887-1955) offered a differing theory of intelligence. Instead of viewing intelligence as a single, general ability, Thurstone’s theory focused on seven different “primary mental abilities.” The abilities that he described were:

  • Verbal comprehension
  • Reasoning
  • Perceptual speed
  • Numerical ability
  • Word fluency
  • Associative memory
  • Spatial visualization

Howard Gardner – Multiple Intelligences:

One of the more recent ideas to emerge is Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences. Instead of focusing on the analysis of test scores, Gardner proposed that numerical expressions of human intelligence are not a full and accurate depiction of people’s abilities. His theory describes eight distinct intelligences that are based on skills and abilities that are valued within different cultures.

The eight intelligences Gardner described are:

  • Visual-spatial Intelligence
  • Verbal-linguistic Intelligence
  • Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence
  • Logical-mathematical Intelligence
  • Interpersonal Intelligence
  • Musical Intelligence
  • Intra personal Intelligence
  • Naturalistic Intelligence

Robert Sternberg – Triarchic Theory of Intelligence:

Psychologist Robert Sternberg defined intelligence as “mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to one’s life.” While he agreed with Gardner that intelligence is much broader than a single, general ability, he instead suggested some of Gardner’s intelligences are better viewed as individual talents.

Sternberg proposed what he refers to as ‘successful intelligence,’ which is comprised of three different factors:

  • Analytical intelligence: This component refers to problem-solving abilities.
  • Creative intelligence: This aspect of intelligence involves the ability to deal with new situations using past experiences and current skills.
  • Practical intelligence: This element refers to the ability to adapt to a changing environment.

Final Thoughts:

While there has been considerable debate over the exact nature of intelligence, no definitive conceptualization has emerged. Today, psychologists often account for the many different theoretical viewpoints when discussing intelligence and acknowledge that this debate is ongoing.

If you want to be an intellectual, work hard and be uncompromisingly scrupulous and honest. Since most people are sufficiently intelligent, those among them who have access to good education are capable of being true intellectuals, but few choose it. If you have access to good learning, then you definitely can be this rare kind if intellectual – the only real kind.

What is the difference between being intelligent and being intellectual?

Source: http://bit.ly/1E3GXFk 

It appears most answers can be classified into two categories. Almost all answers acknowledge that an intelligent person has the ability to learn and to figure things out quickly. S/he can also sometimes have insight that isn’t obvious to others.

Where the two main categories of answers differ seems to be on what an “intellectual” is:

1. Some of the answers identify an intellectual as someone who thinks deeply and carefully about things, and who loves to inquire and to learn.

2. Some of the answers identify an intellectual as someone who pretends to be intelligent by carrying on using fancy language and acting haughty.

It seems like answers deal with at least three concepts that correspond to the following descriptions, but some answers differ on what is the best term to use for each description:

1. Someone who has strong mental capacity, can think quickly, can pick up on things – someone who simply has ability. Most people describe this person as “intelligent“.

2. Someone who loves to think through things honestly, thoroughly and systematically. S/he uses deductive logic to examine premises and conclusions. This person also loves to inquire and to learn. Some people describe this person as “intellectual”. Others may prefer another term (but no alternative was given in the answers).

3. Someone who loves to pretend to be more clever than others. Some people think this person is “intellectual”. This seems to be dictated by their own association with the word, rather than its common usage, because the word in its common usage does not necessarily refer to a “false intellectual”. In other words, “true intellectual” versus “false intellectual” have different meanings in the English language.

Some answers also deal more with practicality: for example, an intelligent person is thought more practical or sociable by some than an intellectual person … Again, it seems this corresponds to the way answers associate with the words personally, rather than what they think the words mean traditionally.

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If you want to be an intellectual, work hard and be uncompromisingly scrupulous and honest. Since most people are sufficiently intelligent, those among them who have access to good education are capable of being true intellectuals, but few choose it. If you have access to good learning, then you definitely can be this rare kind if intellectual – the only real kind.

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